Centre for Sports and Exercise Medicine, Barts and The London School of Medicine and Dentistry, Queen Mary University of London, Mile End Campus, 275 Bancroft Road, London E1 4DG, UKReceived 15 October 2011; Accepted 18 October 2011Academic Editor: Wasim S. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders.On the basis of their investigation, they do not recommend using porcine SIS to augment repairs of massive chronic rotator cuff tears performed with the surgical and postoperative procedures described in this study.  conducted a 2-year followup of 12 patients who underwent arthroscopic repair of massive chronic rotator cuff tears using Restore SIS as an augmentation device.
The final scaffolds are composed mainly of naturally occurring collagen fibres, predominantly type I collagen, and several of them have a surface chemistry and native structure that is bioactive and promotes cellular proliferation and tissue ingrowth .
The Restore graft (Depuy, Warsaw, IN) is a circular implant consisting of 10 not crosslinked layers of porcine small intestinal submucosa (SIS).
Scaffolds have been the most common strategy investigated to date .
The rationale for using a scaffold device for tendon repair may include mechanical augmentation, improving the rate and quality of biologic healing, or both.
However, available data are lacking to allow definitive conclusion on the use of scaffolds for tendon augmentation.
We review the current basic science and clinical understanding in the field of scaffolds and tissue engineering for tendon repair.Tissue engineering techniques using novel scaffold materials offer potential alternatives for managing tendon disorders .Tissue engineering strategies to improve tendon repair healing include the use of scaffolds, growth factors, cell seeding, or a combination of these approaches .Biological scaffolds are obtained from mammalian (human, porcine, bovine, and equine) tissues .To remove any noncollagen components, thus, minimizing the risk of host rejection while retaining its natural collagen structure and mechanical properties, small intestine submucosa (SIS), dermis, and pericardium are processed through cascade steps, including general cleaning, removal of lipids or fat deposits, disruption of cellular and DNA materials, crosslinking, and sterilization .Nested PCR of the DAP12 gene demonstrated that Restore SIS contained porcine DNA material.