In 1956 over a hundred congressmen signed the Southern Manifesto, promising to use all legal means to undermine and reverse the Court's ruling.
Board of Education declared racial segregation in public schools unconstitutional.
Due to patterns of residential segregation, a principal tool for racial integration was the use of busing. Charlotte-Mecklenburg Board of Education ruling, the Supreme Court ruled that the federal courts had the discretion to include busing as a desegregation tool to achieve racial balance. Supreme Court placed an important limitation on Swann when they ruled that students could be bused across district lines only when evidence of de jure segregation across multiple school districts existed.
Even though school districts provided zero-fare bus transportation to and from students' assigned schools, those schools were in some cases many miles away from students' homes, which often presented problems to them and their families.
In addition, many families were angry about having to send their children miles to another school in an unfamiliar neighborhood when there was an available school a short distance away.
By 1960, all major Northern cities had sizable black populations (23% in Chicago, 29% in Detroit). Supreme Court ruling in Brown vs Board of Education (1954) overturned racial segregation laws for public schools that had been in place in a number of states since the late 19th century, and ruled that separate but equal schools were "inherently unequal".
Blacks tended to be concentrated in inner cities, whereas newer suburbs of most cities were almost exclusively white. Although the Brown decision affirmed principles of equality and justice, it did not specify how its ruling would promote equality in education.The impact of Green and Swann served to end all remnants of de jure segregation in the South.However, the consequence of the Swann decision ushered in new forms of resistance in subsequent decades.The movement's efforts culminated in Congress passing the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting Rights Act of 1965.Signed by President Lyndon Johnson, the two laws signaled the end of discriminatory voting practices and segregation of public accommodations.Board of Education, by the late 1960s public schools remained de facto segregated in many cities because of demographic patterns, school district lines being intentionally drawn to segregate the schools racially, and, in some cases, due to conscious efforts to send black children to inferior schools.