The forced exodus took place immediately after the German liquidation of the Kraków ghetto, a true-life backdrop to Polanski's film, The Pianist (2002).
I developed a strange habit: clenching my fists so hard that my palms became permanently calloused.
I also woke up one morning to find that I had wet my bed.
A turning point in his life took place in 1969, when his pregnant wife, Sharon Tate, and four friends were brutally murdered by members of the Manson Family.
Following her death, Polanski returned to Europe and eventually continued directing.
In the United Kingdom he directed three films, beginning with Repulsion (1965).
In 1968 he moved to the United States and cemented his status by directing the horror film Rosemary's Baby (1968).
Polanski tried getting closer to his father to ask him what was happening, and managed to get within a few yards.
His father saw him, but afraid his son might be spotted by the German soldiers, whispered (in Polish), "Get lost!
" Polański escaped the Kraków Ghetto in 1943 and survived by assuming the name Romek Wilk, with the help of some Polish Roman Catholic families including Mrs Sermak who promised his father to shelter him.
He attended church, learned to recite Catholic prayers by heart, and behaved outwardly as a Roman Catholic, although he was never baptized.
A German officer kept prodding her back into line, but she fell down on all fours, ... There was a loud bang, and blood came welling out of her back.