Establishment rates of natural enemies and success rates were higher in CBC projects targeting pests of woody plants than other pests.This review aims to answer the questions most commonly asked regarding CBC against insect pests, with particular emphasis on tree pests.
Until 2010, 6158 introductions of parasitoids and predators were made against 588 insect pests, leading to the control of 172 pests.
About 55% of these introductions were made against pests of woody plants.
It will focus on the use of exotic arthropods (parasitoids and predators) and pathogens to control insect pests, i.e.
other targets such as other invertebrates, vertebrates, weeds and pathogens will not be covered.
The adoption rate is likely to increase over time and, in some cases, it has led to a substantial reduction in the invasive pest population.
For example, the ambermarked birch leaf miner (), a rare species in Europe, was accidentally introduced into North America at the beginning of the twentieth century.
Guest Editors: Andrew Liebhold, Eckehard Brockerhoff and Martin Nuñez / Special issue on Biological Invasions in Forests prepared by a task force of the International Union of Forest Research Organizations (IUFRO).).
Invasive forest pests and, more generally, woody plant pests, have traditionally been a priority target for classical biological control, for various reasons.
Classical biological control (CBC) is the introduction of a natural enemy of exotic origin to control a pest, usually also exotic, aiming at permanent control of the pest.
CBC has been carried out widely over a variety of target organisms, but most commonly against insects, using parasitoids and predators and, occasionally, pathogens.
However, these assumptions would need to be properly tested.